Well, I figured it out, and I feel a bit silly.
Turns out that the firmware and model number was a bit different from the original hard drive.
I found a spare hard drive with the same firmware revision as the existing hard drive. After replacing it, it accepted the disk, and all was well.
This is the first time I've had problems with firmware revision in an array though. Every time I've replaced a drive attached to a controller, software raid, etc it has always gone smoothly, drive accepted without problem. Could this be a BIOS issue? Something else?
It might be a BIOS issue. Try updating the BIOS only if the new BIOS has an update for the Intel® Rapid Storage BIOS.