The MCU on the Edison is a Minute IA CPU.
All the information available regarding the features of the MCU on the Edison is in here: Creating applications with the MCU SDK for the Intel® Edison board: Overview
There isn't a direct access to the timer, but you can use the timing functions available on the SDK. The pinout of the Edison does not include a pin for the timer on the MCU. Pin out for Boards and Kits