I can think in some suggestions for you regarding the timer question. I haven't tested them, but I hope you find them interesting:
- You could try to use the ISRBlink example. This example uses the TimerOne.h library to make an interruption at regular intervals. You could try it and check if you can reduce the intervals to the time you need.
- You could use the function millis() to calculate the time intervals. Check the following example about using millis() to calculate time intervals: Arduino - BlinkWithoutDelay
- There are threads that discuss the use of timers in Edison. You could check them in order to get ideas for your project:
I hope you find these suggestions useful.
Regarding the question about the storage space, the drive that appears on your PC when you connect the Edison can't be used to store files or data. That space was used before to flash the Yocto image (now you can use the Flash Tool Lite to flash the Yocto image).
However, you could save your data in the internal Edison memory, let say for example in the /home directory of your Edison. You could navigate through the Edison's directories if you get access to the terminal. Check the following tutorial for additional details about accessing the Edison's terminal: IoT - Step 3: Set up a serial terminal | Intel® Developer Zone
I found the Arduino-BlinkWithoutDelay example is very useful. Now I have get a 100 data per second.
From the arduino official website, it says the AnalogRead() function takes about 100 microseconds to read an analog input, so the reading rate is about 10000 times per second. I just wondering whether the intel edison with arduino breakout board can achieve this when using ardunio IDE analogRead() function? Or it is slower than 10000 per second?
I haven't tested it so I'm not sure if you would get the same results. I'd say that the results would be different because the hardware is different, and the information detailed in the Arduino site might apply only for the Arduino boards. Anyhow, the only way to know it for sure is trying it. I invite you to test if you can reach the rate you desire and post your results in the community.