I would like to know if you encountered with this article and if you tried the steps here: Solved: Windows update cannot currently check for updates in Windows 8, 7 or Vista - wintips.org - Windows Tips & How-to…
Microsoft released a fix for the issue "Windows Update Cannot Check For Updates" error message when you try to install updates". https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/2730071
Also they advise the users to update to the latest version of Intel(R) Rapid Storage Technology. Download Intel® Rapid Storage Technology (Intel® RST) RAID Driver
I look forward to your outcome.