I have the same setup, but running WHS2011, I had basically the same thing happen, I ended up installing to a 2.5 drive and then cloning that to the M.2 Drive, I know its a bit of a half assed work around but it worked.
Did you setup the disk with uefi boot?
I noted you already have the latest BIOS version 0352 and Linux operating system. Downgrade the BIOS to version 0246 using the Recovery option (remove BIOS jumper and use the .BIO file RY0246.BIO).
Then, get into BIOS and enable UEFI and Legacy boot as well USB Legacy.
Try to reinstall the operating system, selecting the UEFI boot.
Thanks for your hint Mike C.
The downgrade solved it!