The Edison module has the following interfaces: SPI, I2C, UART, PWM, and USB. You can use those interfaces in order to communicate with an external device. I recommend you to check which interfaces are used by the components that you want to use. Also, I recommend you to check the logic level used by the components. The Edison module is 1.8V compatible so you have to use components compatible with 1.8V logic. If the components are 3.3V or 5V compatible, then you have to use a logic level converter to interface them. The Arduino Expansion Board for Edison has logic levels on board so you can interface 5V compatible devices with no problems.
On the other hand, I recommend you to check the following project; I think it might be interesting for you since it's similar to the one that you described: drejkim/edi-cam · GitHub
Awesome! Thanks a ton for the reference. The project does seem pretty much alike.