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The Edison module uses the pins 22 and 27 of the 70-pin connector for console interaction. These pins are the GP134 (pin 22 - RX) and GP135 (pin 27 - TX). Additionally, you have to consider that the Edison's I/O pins are 1.8V tolerant. The FTDI USB adapter that you pointed is 3.3V compatible but not 1.8V compatible. This means that you would have to add a voltage level translator to interface the Edison and the adapter.
I recommend you to take a look at the Mini-Breakout Board schematic (sheet 4) where the console interface circuit is detailed. It will help you to understand how it works and how it should be connected in case you want to add another IC, or an adapter in this case: Intel® Edison Boards and Compute Modules — Intel® Edison Breakout Board Schematic
Also, take a look at the Edison module hardware guide: Intel® Edison Boards — Compute Module Hardware Guide. It details different aspects of the Edison like the I/O pin distribution. You will find it useful.
Thanks for the incredibly quick reply!
So if I'm reading the schematics right and understanding what you're saying, it looks like I can conole into the edison using the FTDI adapter as long as I can get the TX and RX lines down to 1.8V with a logic level converter or even a couple of transistors.
If that's all I have to do then I should be able to get my project into a small form factor.
That's correct. The only lines needed are TX and RX at the correct voltage level.
Take a look at the following voltage translator; it might be useful for you: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/txb0102.pdf