Have you already tried with the mraa example found in mraa/uart.c at master · intel-iot-devkit/mraa · GitHub?
If you still run into issues, I'd suggest you to compile it directly on your board. It is very simple, just follow these steps:
1. Create the file where your code will be stored with "vi YOUR_FILE_NAME.c" and paste your code.
2. Compile the code and create an executable file with "gcc YOUR_FILE_NAME.c -o OUTPUT_FILE_NAME -lmraa"
3. Then run the code with ./OUTPUT_FILE_NAME
You'll want the latest IDE and the latest Edison image. You can browse the download dir too:
The IDE does let you update mraa but latest image will be on mraa 0.8.1 already so that's your best bet.