In this case, we advise you to try a clean installation of the Bluetooth drivers.
Please follow these instructions to manually remove the previous drivers, then install the current versions. Try using the ones from the PC manufacturer first:
1. As first option, you should obtain the WiFi and Bluetooth drivers from the Computer Manufacturer Support Site. The drivers available in Intel Download Center are generic versions and can be used as second option.
2. Alternatively, download for Intel® PROSet/Wireless Software for Bluetooth® technology for MS Windows® 10 64-bit (WP), version 17.1.1531.1764.
3. Go to Control Panel - Programs and Features and Uninstall "Intel® PROSet/Wireless Software for Bluetooth® technology", if it is installed. Uninstall any patch first, then any other version that may have remained). When prompted, choose the option to "Discard settings".
4. In Control Panel, Device Manager, Bluetooth Radios, right click on the Intel® Wireless Bluetooth® and Uninstall it. Make sure you mark the option to "Delete the driver software for this device".
5. Reboot the PC or scan for hardware changes, check device manager again and if an older driver is detected and installed, repeat the actions to uninstall and delete it as well. Repeat this process until the OS does not allow deleting the driver, or until the controller shows as Unknown Device.
6. Install the Intel® PROSet/Wireless Software for Bluetooth® technology downloaded before.
Thanks, this driver version 17.1.1531.1764 works!
For your information, the latest version 17.1.1532.1814 available online didn't work, no matter how many times I tried and reinstalled everything, including Windows.
And if you have any collaboration with Microsoft, let them know that the built-in driver in Windows 10 1511 is also bad, producing the same error as the latest driver.
Ps. There are no Windows 10 drivers from the computer manufacturer.