The win 32 disk imager allows you to set the properties to the SD card in order to be able to run the image with the board. Which files do you have in the SD card, right now?
Are you sure that you are booting from the SDcard?
What is the outcome of running uname -a?
I'm sure Charlie is more expert than me on this, but I thought I'd throw in my 2c to see if it would help - if you are able to successfully connect to the console, it sounds like your Linux is running OK, although as Charlie says you will need to check that you are really booting off the SD card.
If your Linux is running, but you can't connect via SSH, then that is due to a network problem. Presumably you have connected your computer to your Galileo via an Ethernet cable? Connection refused would often suggest that sshd is not running - if you connect via console, can you check that sshd is running? On my board I think this is done using:
systemctl | grep ssh
Have you checked the network addresses of your computer and the Galileo board? They will need to be on the same network or you won't be able to connect.
Hope that helps.
Have you been able to establish an ssh communication with the board?
How are you establishing the network connection?
Please let us know if you have been able to work on this.