Based on the post codes and the fact it sometimes successfully boots into Windows*. Please confirm the current BIOS version you have on your DX58SO.
Additionally, you could try testing different compatible RAM memory and running defaults at BIOS to confirm all setting are fine.
- the BIOS was sox5810j.86a.5559.2011.0405.2144
- I updated this to sox5810j.86a.5600.2013.0729.2250
Per my notes (from last spring), the upgrade was successful. It did not help anything - my post above came some time after that.
(NB: I have since sidelined this project (more at Stopped booting: how to approach?). I wasn't getting anywhere, and I don't currently need that box. I 'hope' to get back to it, but it's not my highest priority. )
Freely acknowledging my very limited expertise, but ...
This box reportedly ran fine before it came to me. (From my brother's company.) Then, I used it for nearly a year before this problem showed up. Now, having failed, the problem occurs with any one of the three DIMM's (Corsair HX3X12G1600C9) installed. (More details, Stopped booting: how to approach?) So, ISTM that something (bad) happened, which affected either all 3 devices, or something else on the MB.
In that regard, (asking here because memory settings came up): as noted in post 10 of Stopped booting: how to approach?, this problem started after a Razer 'gaming' (?) keyboard was attached, which launched a number of processes - minimally, it wanted to install drivers (which I think I blocked), but a BIOS change was reported on the next boot. (As noted in both threads, I have since re-loaded the default settings, and also updated the BIOS. I assume this would have undone any change, if one indeed occurred.)
Q1:But: could the Razer app have made a setting change that would have damaged either the memories or the MB? e.g.: I've read warnings that using the wrong voltage setting can damage the CPU.
Q2: given the potential 'borderline' nature of the memory system, (a) would it help to turn off "Auto" in the BIOS performance tab, and dial back the clock multipliers (or anything else); and (b) are there memories that you would offhand recommend? It currently has 3x2Gb, which is certainly enough for my purposes.
Please confirm if you have been able to test different RAM modules on your Intel® DX58SO motherboard?
Are you able to access BIOS on your Intel® DX58SO motherboard?
Intel® DX58SO motherboard supports the following RAM frequencies DDR3 800/1066/1333/1600 MHz as stated here Intel® Desktop Board DX58SO Specifications
The answer for question one is Yes. It is possible to damage processor if the wrong voltage is set.
In regards to your second query, you could get more information about supported RAM here Intel® Desktop Board DX58SO — System Memory
Additionally, it is recommended to leave the "AUTO" option enabled unless you are going to manually set the RAM to any of the supported frequencies (800/1066/1333/1600 MHz) and if the RAM memory supports the specific frequencies you are going to test.
Regarding Q1, no runtime software can affect the configuration of the BIOS, so your activity with the Razor keyboard shouldn't be a factor (well, unless it introduced a hardware fault (like a short) that damaged the motherboard).
Regarding Q2, No, stay with AUTO. The DIMMs tell the system how they need to be configured and operated. If the board (or the processor; remember that the memory controllers are in the processor, not on the board) cannot run with these settings, it is a pure incompatibility. Since this memory worked with the board previously and doesn't any longer, one of three things is happening: (a) something on the motherboard (or in the processor) is starting to fail and this is creating the incompatibility, (b) something in the DIMMs is starting to fail (though it's unlikely all three have had this occur) or (c) something in the system design is creating noise that is responsible for the appearance of incompatibility (somewhat unlikely; did you change anything else recently? video card?).
Hope this helps. Remember that this board and processor are over 5 years old; as they say, 'over time, $hit happens'...