Well, in order to use a camera like the one that you mention, you will probably have to make kernel changes in order to add the correct drivers to the image. So my first suggestion would be for you to check whether or not the OV5647 is supported by kernel 3.10 (which is the kernel Edison uses). If in fact it does support it, then my second suggestion would be that you read and understand the BSP so you can learn how to add the drivers to the kernel.
Your project sounds very interesting; I'll be looking forward to hearing about it on the future.
I'll have to look into 3.10 to see if its in there... but I feel like thats a step too far. I'm not seeing how to hook up the OV5647, hardware-wise.
The OV5647 I have been able to source uses a 15 pin ribbon cable... a "CSI" interface, from what I gather. I haven't seen how that hooks into the Edison breakout boards... and I'm not clear (yet) how exactly you make the OV5647 kernel driver aware of what GPIO/I2C/SPI/etc. to look for.
Again, I'm really just starting on this kind of hardware.