Thermal Trip: The processor protects itself from catastrophic overheating by use of an internal thermal sensor. This sensor is set well above the normal operating temperature to ensure that there are no false trips. The processor will stop all execution when the junction temperature exceeds approximately 130 °C. This is signaled to the system by the THERMTRIP# pin.
Its for previous gen. of i5, unlikely the absolute limit was changed lower for gen.6
From same source:
If TM1 and TM2 have both been active for greater than 20 ms and the processor temperature has not dropped below the TCC activation point, the Critical Temperature Flag in the IA32_THERM_STATUS MSR will be set. This flag is an indicator of a catastrophic thermal solution failure and that the processor cannot reduce its temperature. Unless immediate action is taken to resolve the failure, the processor will probably reach the Thermtrip temperature (see Testability Signals on page 84) within a short time. To prevent possible permanent silicon damage, Intel recommends removing power from the processor within ½ second of the Critical Temperature Flag being set.
I.e. Thermtrip is the temperature of silicon damage.
If you did not experience any shutdown or throttling while using the computer in the above mentioned period of time, it means the processor temperature was not enough to damage the processor itself.
The thermal solution provides both component-level and system-level thermal management.In order to allow optimal operation and long-term reliability of Intel processor-based systems, the system/processor thermal solution should be designed so that the processor: Remains below the maximum junction temperature (TjMAX) specification at the maximum thermal design power (TDP). and Conforms to system constraints, such as system acoustics, system skin-temperatures, and exhaust-temperature requirements.
Please refer to pages 177 and 178 of 6th Generation Intel® Core™ Processor Family Datasheet, Vol. 2
Additionally you may find relevant information here 6th Generation Intel® Core™ Processor Family Datasheet, Vol. 1
In this particular case, I suggest making sure your cooling solution is properly installed in order to ensure there is no risk for your processor anymore.
Note: System and Maximum TDP is based on worst case scenarios. Actual TDP may be lower if not all I/Os for chipsets are used.