You will be able RMA it again as long as the issue was not caused by the user. The warranty period varies according to the SSD series as you can check here: Intel® Solid-State Drives Limited Warranties however, the warranty expiring date obeys its manufacturing date and not the date of purchase and here is the link where you can always check and verify the warranty period: Intel Customer Support Warranty Center make sure to select the option that says SSD and then insert the ISN # in the space required. Access this link for further information on our SSDs: Intel® SSD Resource Center
Now, answering your second question:
Intel does not refurbish nor recover data on SSDs. You will receive a new SSD to replace the damaged one and the whole RMA process should take no longer than 10 business days if all shipping information is informed correctly. As additional information, if you ever need to recover data from your Intel(R) SSD you are welcome to check these companies: Intel® High Performance Solid-State Drives — Data Recovery Options for the Intel® SSD 320 Series - Please, make sure the procedure will not cause void of warranty.
I would like to rectify part of the information provided above about the warranty period regarding the replacement. The new SSD will obey the warrant time frame left for the original SSD that you have. For example if you current SSD has only 6 months or 2 years left. The warranty on your new SSD will obey this time frame. it is not renewed.