You are currently running an Intel® HD Graphics based on second generation graphics. According to the list of supported operating systems, your graphics controller is not supported on Windows 10.
I recommend going back to your previous operating system with full graphics support.
Intel is actually wrong, I had the same problem, same processor even.
Go in Device Manager, through your computer's properties. Now, Intel Graphics has defaulted to 'Microsoft Basic Display Adapter'. Click on it, click 'Update Drivers', let the computer search for drivers and it should be fixed. Everything will be smooth. Don't revert back. W10 is waaaaaaaay better.
The Windows Update thing doesn't work for me as I think the current Windows 10 driver doesn't support the Pentium processor the laptop has (it's too old I think). But good news - I've downloaded the Windows 8.1 driver for my processor and so far it's working perfectly. More importantly, Minecraft is working again!