I was planning to set the Intel Edison as a data logger where all the data it gets from the ADC get's stored into the SD-Card then you could mount the Edison on to the computer and the data would appear. I know that with a typical microcontroller you have USB Libraries for this, but I thought with Yocto linux it maybe different or easier.
I don’t think it is going to be easier since you might have to modify the existing Edison driver, or write a new one. However, if you want to transfer data from the SD card attached to the Edison directly to your PC, you can do it wirelessly. There are programs that allow you to establish a wireless communication with a device. I use WinSCP for this purpose. This program allows me to transfer data from the Edison to my PC and vice versa in an easy way. Go ahead and try this way; it might be helpful for you.