I found a layer that includes a docker recipe, but it is from a master branch not daisy. Take a look at this site the recipe is inside recipes-containers. You can give it a try, but since it is a master branch it is not validated for daisy. I hope you find this helpful.
I was looking through the Docker installation notes and noticed that the required kernel version bounces around 3.10, depending on the distro, based on the presence of certain (unspecified) kernel features.
You might look into what those features are, and whether they're included in the Edison Yocto 3.10 kernel, or if a workable patch exists.