there are 2 flavors of Yocto images for Galileo available I am aware of:
one based on uclibc (which that way is pretty close to the SPI image)
one image based on eglibc - which is close to glibc
Both images support running Arduino sketches via the Adrduino IDE and don't require any modifications in recipes to work (unless you dropped the parts required for Arduino).
Moreover, if you take the eglibc based Intel(R) IoT developer kit SD card image everything in your list of packages (maybe apart from boost - which you can add from the repo i586/) should be already in the image. So you might just use that image