Probably others can answer some of this better than I can. But will take a quick stab at it.
Arduino IDE for mini - You can make it work for some things, but GPIO, SPI, I2C... can be problematic. I have hacked up arduino to have a board type for the Mini, that has some of this resolved. Maybe 80% done, but probably needing 80% more time to complete I put what I have up for people to play with, but stopped doing much as I also sent stuff to Intel and hoping that maybe they have done some of this for the new firmware release that I was hoping would be released by the end of last year. Note: while I try to get the Arduino IDE to work. Personally it is easier using the Eclipse IDE, where it is setup to upload and debug programs over wifi...
Tutorials: others hopefully an answer.
AtoD - none on the board. Sparkfun sells a daughter board (SparkFun Block for Intel® Edison - ADC - DEV-13046 - SparkFun Electronics). I have not tried it, so don't know how well it works. My understanding is that neither Arduino IDE nor MRAA will know about it.
SPI - Again is 1.8v. You most likely need a voltage level converter for this. There are current threads about trying to pick one that works well...
Touch screen - I have the Adafruit 2.8" TFT touch screen working (slow) on this board. Again need proper voltage level converter. 4D systems? I have not played with them in awhile, the ones I had were Serial based. Assuming still true, you should be able to hook these up to Edison. Again probably need level converter. Also choice of which one is probably critical as I have heard that some more or less don't work at baud rates > 9600.