The Yocto image includes opkg to manage packages, it uses .ipk files. If you decide to use this package manager and you are using the SD card image provided in https://communities.intel.com/docs/DOC-22226 , I’d suggest you to use the packages from AlexT repo https://communities.intel.com/docs/DOC-22226 . In case you don’t want to use them you need to look for packages for the i586 architecture and that are compatible with uclibc(SD card image) or eglibc (custom build image) depending on the Yocto image you are using. On the smart package manager, it seems it handles deb and rpm files but remember that the packages in order to work in the Galileo they need to be compatible with the i586 arch. I hope you find this helpful.
I'm not the correspondent, I'm me. What does happen if the user, myself, or the correspondent, after successfully making his own image, does want to add packages from some other repository. (Or even to the one attached to that location.) Isn't there one already running? Debian insists it has several. Fedora certainly does. Slackware while not as popular as those two does have a few, however the user needs to build them from source in most cases.
In short it becomes one of "Where do we go from here, next?",
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This procedure is the same if you've built an uclibc image, in case you have an eglibc image you can use the IoT repo http://iotdk.intel.com/repos/1.1/iotdk/. If what you want is to use other repository with opkg you have to make sure it is compatible and that the packages are ipk format. If you mean other ways of installing packages like apt-get, you would have to add it into your image but I’m not sure if it would work properly.