You need to make certain that your Edison Arduino board is connected to the computer via the USB port closes to the middle of the board. If you use the outer connector, it will not allow you to program the device.
Also, you need to pick the correct serial port on your computer from within the Arduino IDE. I cannot explain how to do this easily, but it is usually the last device in the list that shows as "ttyCU" or something. If you provided a screenshot showing the serial port connection list within the IDE while the Edison Arduino board is connected via the middle USB port, we could probably tell you which one to use.