On Edison, libmraa provides a python module to interact with the onboard IO. In this example we'll flash the onboard LED from the arduino baseboard, obviously many more interesting usages are up to you to discover!
x = mraa.Gpio(13)
The libmraa python API documentation is always up to date here. You can use it to interact with i2c, spi & the ADC on the edison board. More examples are available here.