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You can install openCV using opkg or follow the description in the BSP documentation on how to add it in the Yocto image.
Third option is to download the sources and rebuild it on the Edison.
But in any case you should consider increase the root partition size or else you probably will end up running out of space pretty soon.
If you consider using a USB web camera as you input device then you should follow the BSP documentation on how to modify the kernel image. You will have to add the UVC support in the kernel in order to easily acquire images from the USB camera from OpenCV.