I am not sure, it has worked on my machine... But some things I would try to see if it helped include:
1) Where did you install the files? I normally install at the root of the file system. (C:\arduino-1.5.3-Intel.1.0.4)
2) Have you installed a standard install of Arduino before? I would try installing Arduino 1.0.6 with the windows installer. It will for example make sure things like Java are installed... Then try running the IDE again and see if it works...
I've found the way to solve this problem after searching on Google.
The reason for which this problem exists is that my the region / language setting of my PC's operating system is not English / Western. The 1.53 version of the Arduino IDE can't run on the OS with a region / language setting that is not English. It's a bug of the IDE which has been realized by the IDE development team and will be fixed in later versions of the IDE.
To solve this problem, in case you're running a non-English language version of windows, you need to either switch your OS's language and regional settings to English, or use a tool named 'Locale Emulator' (download link:Releases · xupefei/Locale-Emulator · GitHub) to emulate an English language environment specifically for the Arduino IDE, or simply, you can wait for the 1.54 version of the IDE to come out with this problem fixed once and for all.
I hope my finding could help people who got the same problem.