The supported OS is the Yocto image that is available on the Software & Documentation section. Even though, we could try some things:
1. Are you sure that you don't have corrupted files in your image?
2. Have you tried re-installing the image without your computer falling asleep?
3. Have you check your packages in order to see if you need something else to run your C++ code?
4. Are you establishing your telnet session to the correct address?
5. Have you tried with an 16GB SDcard instead of the 8GB SDcard that you are using?
Yes I rebuild Windows image and it is started. But as I mentioned telnet commands sometimes quite slow (simple cd .. could take 20 sec.) I dont know if it is by design.
I also think regular Win32 code cant start on the board just because it is has special limitations. I am trying VS2013, it has template for Galileo. But I dont know if it will work with libraries that I use in my project: Boost 1.56, casablanca, Media Foundateion, gstreammer
Have you tried to access in to the Console Terminal using the cable instead of the Telnet connection, using a cable and checking if the time response is better.
Also, I'm not sure if your libraries are going to work, it depends on what packages your image has.
Using the Yocto image you can install the repo's that you need in order to get the tools you need, it has to be the same way with your Windows image.
You might be interested in the IOTxdk you can use eclipse and the toolchains and crosscompilers are included. Take a look of this Guide: Getting Started with Intel® IoT Devkit & Intel® XDK IoT Edition | Intel® Developer Zone
Let me know if this helps, I'll keep investigating more about these Windows Images.