Hi Tim_LHUILLIER ;
The message "Read-only file system" is a message that the system enters in order to prevent damage to the system, it allows you to save data. In this page you'll find a version of Ublinux for Edison, I don't know if you used that page to get it but I know there were an update on October 31th; in this other thread ubilinux (Debian) now available from Emutex Labs they talk about a good funcionality of it.
The problem that you are obtaining, probably is a result of something that came wrong while the installation of packages of the Ubilinux system. You could check the /etc/fstab if the boot configuration is set as read-only, also with dmesg commands you could find which file is causing you problems. Now, the Ublinux system is not supported by us so you could try this or can install again your Ublinux distribution from scratch and see if it works.
I encountered the same problem. It seems to me that the emutex root filesystem is not mounted read-only during normal operation. Which is a bad thing because corruption can happen if the power is pulled at random. Your filesystem is read-only because consistency checks failed at boot. (You can confirm by looking for error msgs in dmesg output.
You can _probably_ fix it by running "e2fsck /dev/root" and then after that finishes rebooting.
Please let me know if this works for you also.