Which path should I be looking through for libraries and example code to learn from?
for Arduino* example code just open the Arduino* IDE and check File -> Examples. No need to dig into anywhere else.
If you want to program native you might be interested to take a look into the Intel(R) IoT developer kit Eclipse IDE on https://software.intel.com/en-us/iot/downloads which supports the Intel(R) Edison Arduino breakout board.
I have 1.53 installed on WIN8 and the Edison/Arduino expansion board. Under ..\hardware\Arduino there are 2 subfolders: x86 and Edison. What's the difference?
The "x86" path is for Intel(R) Galileo, whereas the "edison" path is for Intel(R) Edison