You can connect a GSM device to the Galileo Gen 1 board. I suggest you to take a look at this document https://communities.intel.com/servlet/JiveServlet/previewBody/22996-102-1-26778/GalileoShieldTestReport_330937_001.pdf to see the tested shields that will work with your board.
1 of 1 people found this helpful
You should also be able to use a GSM Mini PCIe card, but there is one caveat, and that is the SIM card or more precisely, the connection of it.
Usually in a laptop, there is a SIM socket on the motherboard, but there is none on the Galileo, but there are ways to get it working.
Have a look at this thread for some suggestions: mini PCI express 3g card?