I decided to look within Dolphin builds, if there would be any hints of what broke the OpenGL backend for Intel HD. I eventually found out, that Dolphin revision 4.0-583 was the one that breaks the backend with results described above.
The revision was the one that introduced buffer_storage (OpenGL 4.4 extension), so this suggests that Intel HD might be handling this incorrectly atm.
OpenGL backend works on AMD and NVIDIA hardware, so the buffer storage code shouldn't be wrong in the software.
This was dissected further by the Dolphin developer who originally implemented buffer_storage support to Dolphin. As I'm not a developer/coder, I'm not able to clarify the discussion here, but the GitHub Pull Request to workaround this is found at Work around Intel's failings with buffer_storage by Sonicadvance1 · Pull Request #972 · dolphin-emu/dolphin · GitHub , and the issue tracker is found at Issue 7622 - dolphin-emu - OpenGL is broken on Intel HD (newest drivers) since 4.0-583 - Dolphin, a Gamecube / Wii / …
The issue (from the developers perspective) is outlined in the commit note (see GitHub link):
+ // Bug: Intel's Window driver broke buffer_storage with GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER
+ // Affected devices: Intel (Windows)
+ // Started Version: 188.8.131.52.3907 (10.18.10.3907)
+ // Ended Version: -1
+ // Intel implemented buffer_storage in their GL 4.3 driver.
+ // It works for all the buffer types we use except GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER.
+ // Causes complete blackscreen issues.
Hope this helps!
Thanks for your patience.
I just received some information from the engineering team. We are releasing new drivers that address this matter. I still do not have an estimate for this new release but you can update graphics drivers here: Intel® Driver Update Utility
All, this issue has been resolved with the latest Intel HD Graphics driver released today. Please find at the following links.