Just to be clear, your computer does not recognize the Galileo on the USB cable when booting from the SD card? It is possible to access the Linux console via USB cable without the need of the serial cable but you need a special configuration. Are you booting from an image you built from the BSP or the one on the download center?
That's correct, when booting from the SD card I do not see the COM port associated with the Galileo appear in my Device Manager. I also don't see Gadget Serial or any other new device.
I can access the Linux console via SSH to the device's IP, but I am trying to utilize the virtual COM port to send data to the device over serial. I have the audio jack to 9pin converter, but for the application I'm developing I'd rather not have to make other purchase that cable.
I am booting from an image I built using the Yocto BSP, Clanton-full distro with some dev tools I needed.
I have this same issue. If I do not boot off SD card, the COM port appears and works fine to upload sketches.
As soon as I boot from SD card, the COM port does not appear in Device Manager.
I loaded LINUX_IMAGE_FOR_SD_Intel_Galileo_v18.104.22.168z onto the SD card.
I updated Galileo firmware to 1.02. The board is Galileo Gen 2.
I confirmed that it was booting from SD card by connecting to FTDI serial output using putty. Python is available and I select mass storage in the boot menu.
Ejecting the SD card and rebooting to Galileo flash image fixes the issue every time.
Logs are attached which show the boot from 1) SD card and 2) internal Flash
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I would recommend you to do a firmware update. Follow the steps provided in this link https://communities.intel.com/docs/DOC-22897 and post your results. Hope this helps.
I know it's been a while, but in case anyone has similar problems:
The SD card image I built with Yocto utilized the standard C libraries, not the micro C libraries required by the Arduino/Galileo IDE. In order to use the gadget serial port, you need the compatible micro C libraries on the Intel distributed SD card image. This is documented; I just missed it.