The Galileo has I2C, SPI and CMOS Level UART, along with USB in both Client and Host mode.
So any device which communicates with any of these protocols will just work.
USB May or may not be available via Arduino, you always have the option of dropping down to linux and writing code there, using one of the much-discussed Linux distributions with Dev Tools included.
I personally do not use Arduino, but rather write my programs in C and 'scp' them to the Galileo where I build them and run them.
1-Wire ™ devices can also be used if you connect them to the UART and play around with UART Baud rates as I've demonstrated in an earlier post, which you can find at:
I hope this helps.