The maximum resolution that the Surface Pro 2 will support at 60Hz is 3200x2000. The Samsung U28D590D does not support 3200x2000 @ 60Hz.
However, the Surface Pro 2 will support 3840x2160 @ 30Hz and lower, but unfortunately the U28D590D does not support 3840x2160 @ 30Hz. It only supports 3840x2160 @ 59Hz and 60Hz.
So it will not be possible for you to display 3840x2160 @ 60Hz on the Surface Pro 2 or 3200x2000 @ 60Hz on the Samsung U28D590D.
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Here are the links to the documentation that validates your assessment.
Samsung U28D590D: Page 87, on the "Displayport" table, it states "VESA 2560 X 1440 at 59.951 Hz" and "VESA, 3840 X 2160 at 59.997 Hz".
Intel i5-4200U: Link, on the "Display and Audio Feature Comparison" section, it states "U-Processors: 3200 x 2000 @60 Hz, 3840x2160@30Hz"
Since the Samsung U28D590D is at 60 Hz and the Intel i5-4200U is at 30 Hz, it is clear that they are not compatible.