In this link http://intel-software-academic-program.com/courses/diy/Intel_Academic_-_DIY_-_InternetOfThings/IntelAcademic_IoT_08_Open… you´ll find information about OpenCV and Galileo. Also, in this additional link OpenCV Tutorials — OpenCV 22.214.171.124 documentation you can find many tutorials related to OpenCV from introduction to more abstract image processing, I hope this can help you!
to read your camera images check following commands
cvCreateCameraCapture(camera_id) //0=default, -1=any camera, 1..99=specific camera
On IoT Developer Kit you can find a SD card image including OpenCV
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...and as far as webcams are concerned - I'd suggest picking those supported by uvcvideo driver. It's present in the official image right away and will therefore be the easiest one to use.