Using python, you can turn signals on and off, read the current voltage on the pin, and do everything you pretty much can do from an Arduino Sketch. In order to "talk" to the one wire device, you will most likely want something that will abstract the pin toggling.
As far as I know, no one has created a one wire library for Galileo, but I don't think that is needed. Raspberry Pi uses a kernel module to talk to one wire devices. Since both devices are Linux based it would probably be easy to port that over to work with Galileo. Assuming the w1-gpio and w1-therm modules are built into the SD card image. (if not it will require a rebuilding of the Linux image)
The linked thread is about enabling your exact sensor.
One problem that you are likely to run into... Galileo's I/O speeds are not be fast enough to communicate with one wire devices. At least at the Arduino sketch level (I tested with DHT11). However, this is using a kernel process, so maybe it is fast enough?