Answering my own question: logging in to the access point and changing the wireless mode to 802.11n seems to have fixed it.
I'm just getting started with my Galileo Gen2 board today. I would like to get it connected to my home WLAN network but I have only seen instructions for doing so using Linux. I prefer to use Windows 8. I saw your post while searching for some guidance and was wondering if you had any tips to offer. I'm also curious what projects you are undertaking with your board.