Not without tinkering. The default setup doesn't use that one. You can find the mappings in a thread called "Serial ports" by EJP.
Thank you AlexT
OK, So my plan A will not work. Plan B would be to use an RS-232 shield that gets its RX and TX from pins 0 and 1.
Do pins 0 and 1 on the Galileo conflict with the USB as they do on some other Arduino boards.
I am a little disappointed. The third paragraph of the Galileo product brief says that the RS-232 port is one of the features that "expands the native usage and capabilities beyond the Arduino shield ecosystem." That would seem to me that the RS-232 port is supported.
Well, I think the phrase is correct - native capabilities in this case is direct access to Linux console and UEFI shell, which indeed expand potential usages beyond shields (and for shields there's UART @ pin 0 & 1)