If you ssh from a Linux/Unix/cygwin system with the ssh -X option (or define a remote DISPLAY variable) then you don't even need to start the VNC server. Saves memory on Galileo and avoids the painful "desktop on desktop" interface.
Thanks for the tip about X forwarding with ssh. Saving memory and bandwidth would be good. This is new to me and looks very promising.
I just have a few more howtos to read. Also, working without a chroot would be a lot easier so I might switch. I don't really need the encryption or compression offered by ssh and vpn while just on my lan except I can see how that is important when a Galileo is controlling the floodgates over the internet. Good thing this is only a learning exercise.
If encryption is a performance problem then there are other X11 alternatives - still not using the awkward "desktop on desktop" VNC approach. Here is one good article, there are plenty others on the internet:
OK. I finally got X forwarding to work. That is better for many purposes.
I had been getting the error: No protocol specified. ...cannot open display...
To fix this I created a login on the galileo with the same username and password and then ran xhost +galileo on my notebook and then xterm from the galileo would pop up on my notebook without the entire desktop. That is very nice.
I didn't know the X forwarding would work without an Xserver. Still stress testing libpthread ... so far so good.
Thanks for the help.
You actually need and have an Xserver: it's running on your desktop.
Compared to the VNC or Windows Remote Desktop the "server" terminology is reversed. That's because Xserver is not an application server, it is a DISPLAY server = the exact opposite. So the Xserver is always running where the physical screen is.
If you are using "xhost +" then you are not using X "forwarding" but just plain (and insecure) X11 connections instead. X11 is actually a network protocol by design. Using xauth is a bit more secure than xhost, see link above. None of them encrypts traffic, you have to "forward" using ssh for that.
To make things much more confusing, VNC on Linux is actually making remotely accessible an... Xserver. It does this by implementing a virtual DISPLAY, see here http://www.hep.phy.cam.ac.uk/vnc_docs/xvnc.html
While the "destop-on-desktop" interface is bordering on unusable, keep in mind that there is one thing VNC gives you over plain X connections: detached mode. I tend to use GNU screen instead for detached mode.
Here's an another way to get VNC work with Galileo.
(Written in Japanese, so Google Translation might help you)
This solution uses Xvfb(X virtual frame buffer) installed on Yocto Linux (eglibc).
Much simpler for many users
Hope this helps.