I also have this problem, I bought a new Intel 530 240GB last week and my PC cant detect it at all.
Not from cold boot or reboot. I plugged it in my HTPC and there it is detected without problems.
I then downloaded the Intel SSD toolbox and updated it to the latest firmware. Still no detection in UEFI BIOS or the operating system.
My motherboard is a Asus P8P67 Pro, I updated its BIOS to latest version and tried different SATA-ports and that other SATA-controller but it is still not able to detect the SSD.
Your problem is somewhat different than what others on this thread experienced. This thread is about problems specifically coming out of sleep.
I will start a new thread for your issue.