I am sorry to hear you have this problem with your Intel® processor but let me help you.
I personally have been running and checking this specific processor model and it seems that the component you highlighted is in the unit I have. So if your processor does not have this, I recommend you contacting the place of purchase or your Intel® local support for them to help you with the replacement of this processor since the performance or lifetime can be affected on it.
I just contacted Intel support and they were of no help.
He told me that "if it works I shouldn't worry about it", "it could last a day or a year" and that the part that I highlighted "is just a cover and is not important".
Are you kidding me?
It felt like I was talking with somebody who works in electronics at Walmart.
I would really like to know two things.
1. What exactly does that part do?
2. Will the performance be hindered in any way from that part being broken off?
I am really sorry to hear you had that bad experience but let me do my best to help you.
That part on the processor is a capacitor that manages a specific sector inside the processor. When manufacturing processors, the capacitors can be added in different locations but in a similar way.
If you see that this part is missing and it is visible damage your system can be affected by performance issues when the processor needs to use that specific sector.
It is important to say that there are sectors inside the processor that sometimes are never used due to the functionality or the task running so it is possible you may not see any problem but it is recommendable to replace the unit if it is damaged.