If you have already update board firmware in step 6 you're ok. No need to update again manually.
You can also upload a sketch and when unplug/replug power supply (and usb if you need) verify if in /sketch folder in the Galileo board there is:
"sketch.elf" and "sketch.elf.old"
if there are both, linux from SD working good.
But again, you can simply test if blink "survive" after unplug power source.
I don't know if there are other methods, but probably yes.
MOD: Wait, I'm probably wrong. You mean Little Linux for update? In that case that's for update firmware. If you have already update with Arduino IDE you don't need it.
In addition: If you want to know if the Galileo board boot effectively from SD you can simply see if SD led (near SD slot and power on led) blink frequently for about 40 sec. If that led blink for 1 or 3 seconds probably Galileo doesn't boot from SD.
PS: sorry for bad english
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Once you have a linux command line, enter the command "df" to show file system sizes.
In my case, I set up a 3gb ext4 file system, so one of my df lines shows:
/dev/mmcblk0p1 31149056 615368 24995488 20% /media/realroot
Yours will vary, but it will be obvious if you are running off SD.
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Here is a snipped fromt the manual for fgets():
char * fgets ( char * str, int num, FILE * stream );
Get string from stream
Reads characters from stream and stores them as a C string into str until (num-1) characters have been read or either a newline or the end-of-file is reached, whichever happens first.
In your case, the end-of-lines comes first after "Mounted on".
You need to do fgets()/Serial.println() in a while loop until you don't receive any bytes from the file anymore. (Don’t' forget to move the fclose() out of the loop ;))
OK... One thing I never anticipated was using the Arduino IDE to show output from the Linux console.
In my case, I made up a serial cable (see Sergey's blog) fed into PuTTY. It is like running a native Linux system.
Also, if you use the Arduino IDE to configure the Ethernet port, that would work also with just a standard
ethernet cable to PuTTY. That is covered in another post.
Mostly though, I run my Galileo as a stand-alone WiFi enabled system, which I access through SSH and PuTTY.
That requires an SD image though.
PuTTY is free, and kind of a must-have.
In your specific case, it looks like your fgets is returning everything in your log file, up to the first new line.
That just displays the header line.
Try putting a loop count in to read multiple lines. You would have to move the buffer pointer yourself.
You will be happier though if you give yourself a real console using one of the cable options above.
Running Linux shell commands through the IDE and "system" API is fine, but if you have the updated SD Card Linux installation running, you should be able to SSH to the device on your network, if you know the IP address, and then execute the Linux shell commands directly.
As far as determining if you are on the SDCard or the SPI-Flash Linux installation, there are options. I've been asking similar questions here :
You've now asked how to "test" your Linux installation. What do you mean by testing ? What is it that you're looking for which will make you comfortable with the quality of the installation ?