Yes, you could try moving from one standalone drive to a RAID 10, the thing would be imaging the RAID 10 to the standalone drive as this would need to be done with a third party software utility, which we do not comment on.
If I replace the 500GB disks by 2TB disks one by one and rebuilding the array in each, when I will have my array 10 with all 2TB disks, Could I resize it from Intel Matrix Manager or Intel Rapid Storage Console? I have read that this option exists for some Intel chips on some kinds of arrays. Mine is ICH10
The feature you refer to is called RAID expansion and that is different from what you would like to do. RAID expansion is to add more capacity when you add another drive to the array. You are just changing the hard drives present in the array.
You may swap each drive at a time and eventually have all new drives in the RAID 10, however, the volume size will remain the same.