Maybe you need to run the install again? Or maybe you didn't reboot afterwards? Or maybe you accidentally grabbed the x86 version, assuming you're on x64 (though I would hope the installer would block it)?
This is where the shortcut points. Do you at least have the EXE?
All the things you mentioned are there on a working install. I have Win8 x64 and that exact driver.
I had this same problem with a Dell E5440 laptop running Windows 8.1 and it was driving me crazy!
I think at some point, I had the laptop connected to a TV via HDMI, and opened the Intel Graphics control panel on that screen. After I disconnected from that TV, the Intel Graphics Control Panel would open up, but be completely invisible and inaccessible.
Uninstalling and reinstalling didn't help... "Moving" the program around on the desktop with Alt+SPACE then "M" didn't work. NOTHING worked.
I DID manage to get it back, however, and I hope this works for someone else here...
Find the shortcut you're using to open the Intel Graphics Control Panel... Right-click on it and choose "Open file location." That will take you to the shortcut file, or possibly the Intel Graphics Control Panel .exe file itself. If you get to the .exe file itself, skip to the next step. If all you see is the shortcut, right-click again and choose "Open file location" a second time. You should now be in a folder something like:
Now you should see that a file called: GfxUIEx.exe is highlighted. That's the control panel program from Intel that you're trying to open. On my laptop, I also saw a file right next to it called Gfxv2_0.exe. Just out of curiosity, I double-clicked that file, and magically, the Intel Graphics Control Panel finally showed up on my screen again!!!
I was also connected to a different TV via HDMI with "extended mode" on at the time that I fixed my problem, but I can't tell if that had anything to do with it.
So, the steps to fix are:
1) Connect to a TV via HDMI with extended monitor mode on (may not be necessary)
2) Find the file Gfxv2_0.exe
3) Double-click it
Hope this solves some other people's frustration with this!