Assuming you have an Ethernet link, you might have a problem being recognized by your network equipment such as the router or cable/DSL modem. In most home networks, your IP address comes from one of these boxes. You might not be getting an IP address. Some of those devices might need to be reset to work with your new adapter. Depending on the equipment, just powering the box off and on might do it. I once had a cable modem that required holding some buttons to be reset by holding down some buttons when I powered it on.
Once you fix the connection, I would be curious to know how you fixed the issue and how you figured it out. Please post back again.