I had similar problems with my SSD Intel 510 as well. I had enough luck that my partition was not wiped out, just some files were not readable, but symptoms were quite similar: I switched off my PC in the evening and in the morning I saw nothing but the BSOD with information about non-accessible boot device. Surface scan showed a lot of damaged sectors, but SMART attributes (according to Intel SSD Toolbox) were perfectly correct. I erased the SSD and then it was working without problems for around one year. I had another similar crash recently, after recovering my system I had another crash after one week (funny, this happened while I was working on my PC - simply some programs I was using refused to launch and then my operating system shut down, after powering on - BSOD, of course).
For the moment I moved my operating system to HDD, SSD is used as a temporary location for not important stuff and I'm thinking what to do next. I had no SMART errors and I doubt if I can return the drive if all scans shows it's in a perfect condition.
I over clock my system so I'm aware that can cause some problems, but why I had no such problems while using only HDD? Maybe SSD is especially sensitive of over clocking?
Thanks Kotada. Unfortunately, we seem to be the only ones here... What did you use for the surface scan? (Did you use anything other than the Intel Toolbox?)
The issue of overclocking is worth looking into. While my CPU is not overclocked, my RAM is running at 1600Mhz. While they are spec'ed to do that (even come with the right voltage profiles, etc.), they are officially PC3-10700, which means 1333Mhz.
I've also used the Intel Tookbox to schedule a daily Optimization. So hopefully, that would help.