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*Assuming you are using the RST RAID software. on the Intel controller*
If you ever turn on your desktop PC with the Samsung drive missing, then the volume will go degraded and it will perform a rebuild once the samsung drive is returned to the desktop PC.
If you don't turn on the desktop PC and you connect the disk using USB 3.0 (as you stated) then you will be able to copy data off and move it back without the desktop PC being the wiser.
This is because the RST RAID software 18.104.22.1684 only has access to the disks connected to the SATA Controller (via sata ports), not the USB controller and its connectors. Therefore even if your laptop is in RAID mode, it won't degrade the Samsung disk either.
I do want to warn you that there may be some sectors of the disk written to the Samsung drive when connected to the USB port on your laptop. Obviously these changes won't be mirrored on your other drive connected to your desktop PC. You can always perform a "Verify and Repair" in the RST Console UI when you return the Samsung drive to the desktop PC to ensure both drives have the same data.