My own experience with the 2016 SDK and the sample programs is that programs that specify a bit version at the top of their window when they open are the most crash-prone, whilst samples that don't have a bit reference in their title at the top of the window always run.
If you want to run the pre-made binary versions of the samples, a method that makes the samples launch more reliably is:
Go to the folder location where the sample binaries are stored. This is by default:
C:// > Program Files (x86) > Intel > RSSDK > bin
There is a pair of folders here called win32 and x64.
Copy the x64 folder to another location on your computer, such as the desktop. This is because the Program Files(x86) folder is a 'protected' folder on Windows that you cannot write data to. This means that the sample binaries will not function properly if launched from this folder, so the files need to be placed elsewhere. The original purpose for Intel placing the samples here was to provide a means of recovering the sample programs if they get lost.
Once the x64 folder has been copied to its new location, open it there and launch the sample binaries by double left-clicking on them.
The problem is likely not with your processor, an X-Series Skylake generation chip, because the X-Series is supposed to work fine with RealSense.
The 2016 SDK has a program called the Camera Explorer that you can use to test the camera. You can find it by going to the text box at the bottom of your Windows screen (the one by the corner button where you shut down) and type camera explorer into the box.
If your camera is detected, it should appear as a white-lit panel that can be clicked on, like the image above. This takes you to a page where you can run tests with the camera. If the camera is not detected, the SR300 box should be grayed out and say 'not connected'
I am aware it works with the 32 bit binaries but it is advisable to check various possibilities when testing RealSense cameras to diagnose a problem. Thank you for your patience.
The launching of the samples in the 2016 R2 can be erratic. You may get greater stability if you compile the source code of the samples on your PC to create your own binaries tailored to your PC's hardware. Otherwise, I would recommend using the current 'RealSense SDK 2.0', which is compatible with the SR300. It can be downloaded from the link below.