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As Raspbian is based on Debian Linux, I would speculate that it is within the realms of possibility for the RealSense SDK 2.0 to work on it, since it has a Debian distribution. You should take the approach of compiling the source code for SDK 2.0 instead of using the pre-built binary version in order to get best compatibility with your particular hardware / software setup.
The link below has instructions from one of the Librealsense development leaders, Dorodnic, for building the SDK for any Linux-based OS.
A greater problem will be that Raspberry Pi 3 uses USB 2.0 ports instead of USB 3.0 ones, which the 400 Series RealSense cameras prefer. Unlike previous RealSense cameras, you can at least get some functionality on a USB 2.0 connection with the 400 Series (in 'USB2' mode) but the settings available to use are considerably more limited than when the camera is used with a USB 3.0 port.
Edit: here is the official documentation for using 400 Series cameras with Raspberry Pi 3 without a USB 3.0 connection.