This is a difficult question to answer. Looking through another user's installation log that they had posted, the instructions that come immediately after vcredist_x86_v140.xml relate to the point where the DCM files start being read. So it could be that the problem is in the DCM that you have installed.
This is the DCM file that should be used for R200:
I uninstalled my previous DCM and installed the new version given by your link, which is 188.8.131.5253.
I tried again, and failed at the progress of installation.
My windows system is very clean, I only installed the vcredist files from 2010 to 2015. Is it possible that
the installation program might need some third party library, like OpenCL, or Windows SDKs?
Installation usually requires first the installation of the DCM, and then the installation of the 2016 R2 SDK after that. So you seem to be doing the process in the correct order, and you should not need additional programs or files.
Assuming that the camera is being detected correctly by the USB port (you probably would not have been able to install the DCM if there was a USB issue), the next thing I would try is Microsoft's tool for fixing Windows registry problems that may be disrupting installation or un-installation of programs.
I tried this microsoft's tool to reinstall the essential sdk, the problem is still there.
Does the installation program log the crash information? I have one pc successfully installed
the essential sdk 2016 r2. The major difference between these two pc is the Windows version.
The previous one is Win10 Pro, and this failed one is Win10 Home Single Language. Could the
single language be the issue?
RealSense cameras are compatible with Windows 10 Home. And I use it myself on my own PC with RealSense.
If one PC can successfully use the camera and another cannot, the issue is usually related to the USB ports on one PC not providing power stably enough to maintain a connection to the camera (not all USB ports are made equal - even on the same PC, some USB 3.0 ports may work with the camera and others do not). It is curious though that you were able to install the DCM program but not the SDK, as I would normally expect DCM installation to fail too if there was a USB related issue. Then again, USB stability is an inherently unpredictable problem in itself!
The link below gives details of how to create logs with your SDK version.