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I could not find an official compression format, but rather different approaches to compression that engineers have tried, found by googling for 'rgb-d compression format'. Of the small amount I saw, a system called CAR seemed like the most accessible and well-documented. I culd not tell whether it is commercial or open source, though the effort to guide people in setting up their own system suggests open-source. You may wish to inquire to them further about that.
CAR - Recording compressed RGB-D data (section 2 of the page)
CAR - Reading back the compressed data.
Other compression methods, which you may have seen during your own researches, include:
3D Image warping
Lossless and lossy streaming
Compressed sensing and sparse coding
Compressing RGD-D data for cloud robotics with the open source LibAV tool
Regarding the question of synching, the new SDK 2.0 ca use the D415 and D435 cameras to provide advanced stream synchronization. These functions may perhaps be of use to you.