There is nothing to stop you from stripping off the casing of the camera and no safety implications from exposing the laser as far as I am aware. However, it does of course risk damaging the camera's functioning and also invalidates the camera's warranty instantly.
I had a look at the SR300 casing recently for someone else who wanted to remove it. It looks as though it is a sealed unit on the current 'version 2.
There was a version 1 (the launch version) that had the same casing as the older F200 camera. I don't have a V1 SR300 to check and couldn't find a rear image of it, only the top-down (below), but if it was indeed the same case as the F200 then on that version there are two screws on the back of the camera (indicated with arrows I've added) for apparently opening the casing.
You can order a bare board from any approved Intel distributor, including the big ones such as Arrow and Mouser. Intel do not sell them directly themselves.